Rosmarinic acid benefits
Benefits of rosmarinic acid
Rosmarinic acid is a caffeic acid ester , a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound . Polyphenols are a chemical group known to interact on different ways against carcinogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and inflammation, but they also exert powerful antioxidant properties. Some other properties exerted by Rosmarinic acid include its anti-carcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities [3,6].
In olives polyphenols contribute to give a bitter taste to olives and act also as astringents. Rosmarinic acid is also present in many of the herbs commonly used in the Mediterranean diet as Rosemary, sage, basil, oregano and Melissa officinalis among many others, probably one of the reasons of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet and the lower risk of chronic diseases and cancer incidence rates  reported in most Mediterranean countries.
Common name: Rosemary
But Rosemary doesn't only have a very good taste and can be used as a condiment in our meals, it also contains, in addition to the already mentioned Rosmarinic acid, another active constituent named Carnosol, a phenolic compound which is known to be a very powerful anti-cancer agent present in Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) able to inhibit tumor formation .
WHERE TO FIND ROSMARINIC ACID?
Rosmarinic acid is commonly found in plants of the Lamiaceae family, as rosemary, sage, basil, oregano, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia officinalis (sage tea), origanum majorana, Cordia sinensis, Salvia euphratica, Melissa officinalis, Prunella vulgaris.
The administration of rosmarinic acid completely prevented the tumor formation in hamsters
ROSMARINIC ACID BENEFITS
Some of the properties exerted by Rosmarinic acid include its anti-carcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [3,6]. Let's see the scientific studies supporting some of them.
1. Rosmarinic acid and colon cancer
Rosmarinic acid extracted from Melissa officinalis and traditionally consumed as an herbal tea in the Mediterranean region, exerted cytotoxic properties in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116) , something that confirms the potential use of this polyphenolic compound as an natural anti-cancer agent. But the protective effects of rosmarinic acid from Rosemary is not only limited to colorectal cancer, there are also studies on the effect of rosemarinic acid on other types of cancer,suppressing the development of tumors also in breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells .
2. Rosmarinic acid and bone cancer metastatasis on breast cancer
In another laboratory study performed on murine models, Rosmarinic acid could inhibit the migration of MDA-MB-231BO human bone-homing breast cancer cells .
3. Rosmarinic acid and oral cancer
Half of the cancer cases in India are oral cancer cases. In different clinical studies on the effects of rosmarinic acid against oral carcinogenesis and squamous cell carcinoma, the administration of rosmarinic acid completely prevented the tumor formation in hamsters treated .
4. Antioxidant properties of Rosmarinic acid
In a study on the antioxidant activities of Sage (Salvia officinalis), it was concluded that the antioxidant properties of this herb, used as an herbal remedy against inflammations in the mouth and the throat, excessive sweating and skin inflammations, were directly dependent on the content of Rosmarinic acid .
Side Effects and Precautions
See disclaimer below.
 The c4h, tat, hppr and hppd Genes Prompted Engineering of Rosmarinic Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Root Cultures.Xiao Y, Zhang L, Gao S, Saechao S, Di P, Chen J, Chen W.Department of Pharmacy, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
 The effect of rosmarinic acid on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.Venkatachalam K, Gunasekaran S, Jesudoss VA, Namasivayam N.Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamilnadu, India.
 Neurorescue Effect of Rosmarinic Acid on 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Nigral Dopamine Neurons in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.Wang J, Xu H, Jiang H, Du X, Sun P, Xie J.Department of Neurosurgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266003, China.
 Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).Walch SG, Tinzoh LN, Zimmermann BF, Stühlinger W, Lachenmeier DW.
Department for Public Health and Health Technology Assessment, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology Hall in Tyrol, Austria.
 Antitumor initiating potential of rosmarinic acid in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.Anusuya C, Manoharan S.Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
 Phenolic acid contents, essential oil compositions and antioxidant activities of two varieties of Salvia euphratica from Turkey.Yumrutas O, Sokmen A, Akpulat HA, Ozturk N, Daferera D, Sokmen M, Tepe B.a Department of Biology , Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziantep University , Gaziantep 27310 , Turkey.
 Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.Encalada MA, Hoyos KM, Rehecho S, Berasategi I, de Ciriano MG, Ansorena D, Astiasarán I, Navarro-Blasco I, Cavero RY, Calvo MI. Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea s/n, Pamplona, Spain.
 Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives.Ngo SN, Williams DB, Head RJ. School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, SA, Australia.
 Administration of rosmarinic acid reduces cardiopathology and blood pressure through inhibition of p22phox NADPH oxidase in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. Karthik D, Viswanathan P, Anuradha CV. Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
 Administration of rosmarinic acid reduces cardiopathology and blood pressure through inhibition of p22phox NADPH oxidase in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.Karthik D, Viswanathan P, Anuradha CV. Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
 Cytotoxic and cell cycle effects induced by two herbal extracts on human cervix carcinoma and human breast cancer cell lines.Stanojković TP, Konić-Ristić A, Juranić ZD, Savikin K, Zdunić G, Menković N, Jadranin M. Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.
 Inhibition of bone metastasis from breast carcinoma by rosmarinic acid.Xu Y, Jiang Z, Ji G, Liu J. State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering & School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P. R. China.
 Olive oil, an essential component of the Mediterranean diet, and breast cancer.Escrich E, Moral R, Solanas M. Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Physiology Unit, Medicine School, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
 Carnosol: A promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent.
Johnson JJ. University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, USA; University of Illinois at Chicago Cancer Center, Carcinogenesis & Chemoprevention Research Program, USA.
 Singletary, K., MacDonald, C., Wallig, M.. Inhibition by rosemary and carnosol of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation. Cancer Lett 104 43-48 (1996).
Chan, M.M., Ho, C.T., Huang, H.I.. Effects of three dietary phytochemicals from tea, rosemary, and turmeric on inflammation-induced nitrite production.. Cancer Lett 96 23-29 (1995).
 Plant names: Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020, Sorting Rosmarinus Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D) - A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
< http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Rosmarinus.html > (2007)
- Tags: 'Albiflorus', ANTI-CANCER, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY ROSMARINIC ACID, ANTIVIRAL, ANTO-INFLAMMATORY, ARABIC: إِكْلِيل الجَبَل, ARMENIAN: Խնկունի, BASIL, BONE CANCER, BREAST CANCER, BULGARIAN: Розмарин, CARNOSIC ACID, CARNOSOL, CARVACROL FOR PROSTATE CANCER, CHINESE: 迷迭香, CORDIA SINENSIS, CROATIAN: Ružmarin, CZECH: Rozmarýna, DANISH: Rosmarin, DUTCH: Rozemarijn, Eklil kuhi, ENGLISH: Rosemary, ENGLISH: Prostrate rosemary, ESTONIAN: Harilik rosmariin, FINNISH: Rosmariini, FRENCH: Romarin, FRENCH: Romarin à fleurs blanches, FRENCH: Romarin à port dressé, FRENCH: Romarin rampant, GERMAN: Rosmarin, GREEK: Δενδρολίβανο Dendrolivano, Hasalban, HEBREW: רוֹזמָרִין, HUMAN CERVIX CARCINOMA, HUNGARIAN: Rozmaring, ICELANDIC: Rósmarín, Iklil al jabal, ITALIAN: Rosmarino, ITALIAN: Rosmarino con fiori azzurro e foglie sottili, ITALIAN: Rosmarino con fiori bianchi, ITALIAN: Rosmarino eretto, ITALIAN: Rosmarino prostrato, JAPANESE: マンネンロウ, KOREAN: 로즈마리, Kuşdili otu, Mannenrou, MELISSA OFFICINALIS, METASTASIS, Mi die xiang, NORWEGIAN: Rosmarin, ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA, OREGANO, ORIGANUM MAJORANA, PERSIAN: اکلیل کوهی, POLISH: Rozmaryn, POLYPHENOLIC COMPOSITION ROSMARINIC ACID, PORTUGUESE: Alecrim, Ro ju ma ri, Romarin commun, Romero comun, Roozumari, Roozumarii, ROSEMARY, Rosmariin, ROSMARINIC ACID, ROSMARINIC ACID BENEFITS, ROSMARINIC ACID EXTRACT, ROSMARINIC ACID SIDE EFFECTS, ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, Rosmarinus officinalis 'Erectus', Rosmario, Rosumarin, Rozmari, Rozmarin, Rozmarín lekársky, Rozmarýn lékařský, Rozmaryn spravzhnii, Rozmarýna lékařská, RUSSIAN: Розмарин, SAGE, SALVIA EUPHRATICA, SALVIA MILTIORRHIZA, SALVIA OFFICINALIS (SAGE TEA), SERBIAN: Ružmarin, SLOVAKIAN: Rozmarín, SLOVENIAN: Rožmarin, SPANISH: Romero, SPANISH: Romero con las flores blancas, SPANISH: Romero rastrero, SWEDISH: Rosmarin, Sædögg, TAGALOG: Romero, THAI: โรสแมรี, TURKISH: Biberiye, UKRAINIAN: Розмарин Rozmaryn, vandulascens, VIETNAMESE: Lá hương thảo, WHERE TO FIND ROSMARINIC ACID?, Δεντρολίβανο Dentrolivano, Ροζμαρί Rozmari, Розмарин справжній, رزماری, ロスマリン, ロズマリー Rozumarii, ローズマリ, ローズマリー, 迷迭香 Mannenrou