OENOTHERA BIENNIS (Evening primrose)
AENOTHERA BIENNIS(Evening primrose). Its English name Primrose comes from Latin and means first flower. Evening primrose is native to North America and blooms in early summer, between June and September.
The flowers of Evening primrose are quite a distinctive bright yellow colour, but if we have to highlight a characteristic from this herb is its flowers. Evening primrose flowers open only in the evening, within a matter of a few minutes, and close back again at the beginning of next day.
Specie: OENOTHERA BIENNIS
Cis-linoleic acid (LA) , cis-gamma-linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid . Omega 3 oils  (in seeds).
The oil collected from the seeds is specially rich in fatty acids, specially the cis-linoleic acid, a fatty acid that has been claimed to be important for the resistance of epithelial cells in some scientific essays .
Cis-linoleic acid together with alpha-linoleic acid are two fatty acids essential for humans  but are easily obtainable from regular natural sources, therefore is not so common to have reported cases of illnesses due to the lack of those fatty acids, but in cases in which deficiency of other essential fatty acids (EFA´s) was reported there were links to diseases as Alzheimer´s disease, cancer, heart disease…etc.
Traditional Medicinal Use
Several uses and benefits have been claimed for Evening primrose, however the most common use of the plant nowadays is for the treatment of menopause symptoms , however and in spite it is believed that Evening primrose helps to ease hot flushes and also menopause symptoms, there is scientific evidence that such claims are not founded . Other properties and medicinal uses of this herb include asthma, whooping cough…etc.
It´s also said that Evening primrose has certain astringent properties, being also a good diuretic and laxative herb. In spite it is believed that Evening primrose helps to ease hot flushes and also menopause symptoms, there is evidence that such claims are not founded .
Evening primrose has also been named among the top ten ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams .
Side Effects and Precautions
See disclaimer below.
 Weeds in my garden: observations on some misunderstood plants By Charles Bixler Heiser
 The desktop guide to complementary and alternative medicine: an evidence based approach. By Edzard Ernst.
 Medicinal plants: chemistry and properties By Dr. M. Daniel
 Low concentrations of cis-linoleic acid induce cell damage in epithelial cells from bovine lenses. Glaesser D, Fass U, Gruner M, Thust O, Iwig M, Spindler M. Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University, Halle (Saale)/Germany.
 Essential Fatty acids - a review. Life Sciences, 13800 Fairhill Road, Shaker Heights, OH 44120, USA.
 Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams. Cronin H, Draelos ZD. Dermatology Resident, Clinical Dermatology Center, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA
 What your doctor hasn't told you and the health-store clerk doesn't know By Edward L. Schneider, Edward Schneider, Leigh Ann Hirschman.
 PUBMED. Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements. Low Dog T. Program in Integrative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA.